[OpenAFS] Re: [OpenAFS-announce] OpenAFS Security Advisory 2013-0003
Douglas E. Engert
Wed, 24 Jul 2013 11:01:41 -0500
Question: Once the 1.6.5 binaries are in place, and the servers
start using the rxkad.keytab, will the server still accept
existing DES based tokens that use keys and kvno that
are only in the KeyFile?
On 7/24/2013 9:05 AM, Simon Wilkinson wrote:
> OpenAFS Security Advisory 2013-0003
> Topic: Brute force DES attack permits compromise of AFS cell
> Last Updated:
> Affected: OpenAFS servers before 1.6.5 / 1.4.15
> The small size of the DES key space permits an attacker to brute
> force a cell's service key and then forge traffic from any user
> within the cell. The key space search can be performed in under 1
> day at a cost of around $100 using publicly available services.
> OpenAFS uses Kerberos tickets to secure network traffic. For historical
> reasons, it has only supported the DES encryption algorithm to encrypt
> these tickets. The weakness of DES's 56 bit key space has long been
> known, however it has recently become possible to use that weakness
> to cheaply (around $100) and rapidly (approximately 23 hours) compromise
> a service's long term key.
> An attacker must first obtain a ticket for the cell. They may then use
> a brute force attack to compromise the cell's private service key.
> Once an attacker has gained access to the service key, they can use this
> to impersonate any user within the cell, including the super user, giving
> them access to all administrative capabilities as well as all user data.
> Recovering the service key from a DES encrypted ticket is an issue
> for any Kerberos service still using DES (and especially so for realms which
> still have DES keys on their ticket granting ticket). The MIT Kerberos
> Consortium is aware of this issue, and have produced a general guide
> for sites wishing to migrate away from DES which is referenced below.
> This vulnerability is a particular problem for OpenAFS because DES is the only
> encryption algorithm supported in current releases.
> An attacker may gain complete control over the targeted cell.
> No publicly available exploits are currently known.
> AFFECTED SOFTWARE
> All current releases of OpenAFS. This is all releases prior to 1.4.15, all
> releases in the 1.6 series prior to 1.6.5 and all releases in the 1.7 series
> prior to 1.7.26.
> The OpenAFS project recommends that administrators upgrade to OpenAFS 1.6.5
> or later. For those sites unable, or unwilling, to upgrade to the 1.6 series,
> a final release in the 1.4 series, 1.4.15, is provided.
> In addition to upgrading, some additional cell configuration is required. New
> encryption types must be added to the afs@REALM or afs/cell@REALM principal in
> the KDC, and extracted to a new file (rxkad.keytab) on each OpenAFS file or
> database server. Links to more detailed upgrade documentation are given below.
> For sites running with kaserver, there is no fix, since kaserver still
> only supports single DES. Sites running kaserver must migrate to a
> Kerberos 5 environment in addition to applying the fixes in this alert,
> in order to fix this issue.
> These patches extend the rxkad security class with two modifications. The first,
> rxkad-k5, adds support for non-DES service keys. The first modification is
> sufficient to fix the immediate vulnerability. The software update must be
> deployed on all OpenAFS database and file servers within a cell,
> additional encryption types added to the cell's afs/cell@REALM or
> afs@REALM principal, and extracted to the rxkad.keytab file on each server.
> This modification requires that all OpenAFS servers are built with Kerberos
> support, and that all server machines have Kerberos libraries installed.
> With the first change applied, DES is still used for the Kerberos session key
> shared between client and server and, as such, DES must still be enabled in
> the realm's KDC.
> In order to disable DES entirely a second change is required. This
> modification, rxkad-kdf, permits the use of non-DES Kerberos session keys and
> removes the dependency on DES in the KDC. Unfortunately, this modification
> requires changes to the OpenAFS client software on every machine that
> makes authenticated connections to the cell. Once DES support is removed in
> the KDC, only updated clients will be able to connect.
> Note that the client modifications to accommodate rxkad-kdf do not
> require a restart of the OpenAFS client in order to take effect. The
> modifications only affect the userspace tools used to acquire tokens.
> To summarise: The immediate security issue may be resolved by a server upgrade and
> configuration change. Sites who wish to turn off DES entirely in their KDCs must
> also upgrade all of their clients.
> FURTHER READING
> Detailed documentation about how to deploy these changes is available from
> The MIT Kerberos Consortium provides the following documentation on moving
> other services away from DES:
> This issue was identified by Alex Chernyakhovsky, Christy Dennison,
> Patrick Hurst and Peter Iannucci as part of the MIT Computer Systems Security
> These patches were developed by Derrick Brashear, Alexander Chernyakhovsky,
> Andrew Deason, Chaskiel M Grundman and Benjamin Kaduk, with advice from
> Mitch Berger, Adam Glasgall, Jeffrey Hutzelman, Tom Yu and Nickolai
> OpenAFS-announce mailing list
Douglas E. Engert <DEEngert@anl.gov>
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue
Argonne, Illinois 60439